Chiedza Call for Papers 2017-2018

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DECEMBER 2017

Journal of Arrupe College, Call for Articles.

THE EDUCATION INDUSTRY IN AFRICA: AN EDUCATION FOR HUMANITY?

Education is a key to development, security, peace and health that will lead to the sustainable independence of any nation. Education is also the driving force that propels economic growth. Education equips a nation with necessary tools to set up and uphold its values and beliefs. Education should be at the core of what makes us a society. It should determine what we are both as individuals and community. Many argue that African education should indeed aim at transforming the continent; that it should provide the continent with all tools and skills to resolve its current social, political and economic problems.

However, it seems that the education industry is overwhelmed with predicaments. The industry is in a crisis situation when considering the functioning of the industry itself, its quality and products. Recently, over 9 thousands Tanzanian civil servants were sacked over fake certificates; and these workers have affected many lives, though unqualified, in the course of performing their duties. The continent observes a high rate of unemployment (51% of graduates), and yet each and every year, it produces thousands of graduates. Looking at these and many other challenges (political and economic crisis, unemployment, religious violence, among others), raises many questions: should there be a particular sort of African education, first of all, or should we depend on Western education? If we are dependent on Western models of education, should we decolonize the African education systems? What kind of knowledge do we need to generate on the continent? What is to be reviewed in African education? Is traditional African education still relevant to our current issues? What are the predicaments and challenges of African education? What are the possible solutions to these challenges? How can Africa educate its people in order to resolve and respond to its problems? What should be the aims, content and end of African education? How can we nurture African education so as to bring about a new and independent Africa, free from corruption? What should be the role of education to help us cope with spiritual, intellectual, social and political crisis? Can education contribute towards eradicating different crises and predicaments that undermine the wellbeing of Africans?

One goal of education is human development. Education should be for people, to make people more human, more holistic, interconnected and self-reliant. What does it mean to be human from an African perspective? Do Africans perceive humanity in a different way from non-Africans? The continent has many experts though many of them work outside. Why do African professionals choose to work outside the continent? How can our education nurture a patriotic spirit on the continent? One can also question our health education systems when we still have many Africans searching for best treatment outside the continent. How should we offer a self-reliant education that caters for ourselves and the rest of humanity? What should be the role of the Church and the governments in education? Can African education raise millions of Africans who live in abject poverty?

For many years, the continent witnessed bloody conflicts; some of our ancestors profited from the slave trade in exchange for a portion of land, sugar, guns, etc.; and yet they were all one people; did a king who sold slaves have the same identity with the commoner? Did an East African have the same identity as someone in what this now Nigeria? How can the African continent educate its people for cultural integrity, patriotism, at the same time developing the cosmopolitan perspective? Which is more important for an educational syllabus: to create cosmopolitan thinkers or to create patriots? Is cosmopolitanism merely another word for colonialism? Does Africa need education syllabuses that deal with local issues or should syllabuses deal with universal issues, or is universal another word for Western? What should investment for education be directed to? Teachers are badly paid in most African countries; is this one of the problems? Should the education budget in most African countries be directed to practical skills which all of our countries need? What is the place of morals and ethics education in the modern capitalist Africa? Some schools indoctrinate and brainwash students instead of nurturing and shaping their thoughts and intellectual skills in order to exercise their rationality. Such students become latent threats (such as terrorists, bandits, corrupt leaders, etc.,) to our continent. Can moral education help learners to regain virtue in post-modern Africa? How can we set up a roadmap to holistic education?

Chiedza invites you to reflect on these and other related issues in December 2017, Volume 19, No 2 edition with the theme: The Education Industry in Africa: An Education for Humanity? The theme aims at questioning the Education Industry in Africa, its philosophy and perspectives; does the industry educate for humanity? What should be done to improve its functioning? Do we need to rethink, review and reflect on the Education Industry in Africa?

We welcome articles of 4,000 words or less on these and related themes. Articles must conform to the Chiedza style sheet. Articles, book reviews, poems, and creative short stories, not necessarily reflecting these topics, are also welcome, but thematic articles will be given priority. All articles are to be sent by email to the Editor-in-Chief at chiedza@arrupe.ac.zw on or before 31 October, 2017. Please, refer to the Chiedza style sheet for other details. Thank You.

Pascal BIHORUBUSA, SJ.

Editor-in-Chief

For the Chiedza Editorial Board

Notes for Contributors

Manuscripts should be sent to the Editor-in-Chief of Chiedza at chiedza@arrupe.ac.zw. The text should be neatly typed, double-spaced and using software that is compatible with MS Word. The List of Sources should be single spaced. The length of articles should be around 4000 words or less. However, longer articles will also be considered for publication, if their content justifies their length. An abstract of 200 words in length, covering the main factual points of the article, its objectives, the methods that have been employed, and the results and conclusions that have been arrived at should accompany the article. A list of at least six keywords for abstracting and indexing services should be placed at the end of the abstract.

References

Chiedza uses the Modern Language Association (MLA) format for referencing source materials. Under this format reference to sources is in the form of citations in parentheses within the text, and an accompanying “List of Sources” at the end of the article.

1. Citations in the Text

1:1 Identify paraphrases of any length or short prose quotations by citing the author’s last name and page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence or paragraph in which the paraphrase or quotation appears. For example: A feminist theorist has noted “that gender discourse is often dismissed by men, and sometimes by women, as being merely a succession of empty speeches and a means whereby women may see whether they can measure up to men” (Nkealah 134).

1:2 If the author’s name is mentioned in the sentence that contains a quote, provide only the page numbers in parentheses at the end of the sentence and within the period. For example: Nkealah has noted “that gender discourse is often dismissed by men, and sometimes by women, as being merely a succession of empty speeches and a means whereby women may see whether they can measure up to men” (134).

1:3 If more than one work by the same author appears in the List of Sources, include a shortened version of each title after the name preceded by a comma. For example: (Nkealah, “Conceptualizing” 134) or (Nkealah, “In the Name” 48)

1:4 If a work has more than one author, list both or all of them in your citation or use the first author’s last name and add et al. For example (Cothell, Dolan, Highley, and Marotti 9) or (Cothell et al. 9)

1:5 If the work has no author listed, cite by the title or by the first main word or two of a long title.

1:6 Endnotes are not used. Any additional material that comments on the text may be included in footnotes. The number referring to a footnote should appear as “superscript” after the final full-stop of the sentence.

2. Quotations within the text

2:1 Shorter quotations should be in inverted commas.

2:2 Prose quotations more than four lines in length should be block indented 10 spaces from the left margin. The indented quotation should not be in inverted commas.

3. Listing a Work in the List of Sources

3:1 Items in the List of Sources should be listed alphabetically by the author’s name and the author’s surname should appear first followed by a comma.

3:2 A book by one author. Lessing, Doris. Time Bites: Views and Reviews. London and New York: Fourth Estate, 2004.

3:3 A book by two or more authors. Smart, J.J.C and Bernard Williams. Utilitarianism: For and Against. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973.

3:4 An article in a journal. Nkealah, Naomi N. “Conceptualizing Feminism(s) in Africa: The Challenges Facing African Women Writers and Critics.” English Academy Review 23: 1 (2006):133-41.

3:5 A chapter in an edited volume. Stevenson, Jane. “Women Catholics and Latin Culture.” Catholic Culture in Early Modern England. Ed. Ronald Corthel, Frances E. Dolan, Christopher Highley and Arthur F. Marotti. Notre Dame, IN, University of Notre Dame Press, 2007. 52-72.

3:6 A book by a corporate author or group. Second Vatican Council. Vatican Council II: The Conciliar and Post Conciliar Documents. New rev. ed. Gen. Ed. Austin Flannery. Newport, NY: Costello, 1992.

Online material. Information on an article that has been read online (e.g. full address and date of latest update) can be obtained by right clicking on the page and choosing “View Page Info.”

The Journal of Arrupe College

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chiedza@arrupe.ac.zw


DECEMBER 2016

Journal of Arrupe College, Call for Articles

USE AND ABUSE OF RELIGION IN AFRICA

Religion is viewed as a double edged-sword that can both give and take life. Religion has proved itself as both a binder and builder of nations and people and as a threat to security and peace, for it can lead to conflicts. The concepts of „religion‟ and „God‟ have given rise to controversies, not only among Africans but throughout the world. Religion has positively and negatively impacted the African continent for thousands of years. Religion has structured, re-structured and nurtured African political life; and on the other hand, religion has created and fuelled conflicts and wars in different parts of the continent up to the present.

Through religious teachings and institutions, religion has evidenced its role in peace building in different parts of the continent. One can highlight its consolidating message of peace in broken parts of Africa such as Burundi, where the Burundian Catholic bishops mediated a more collegial government to thwart further violence. Religion and religious organisations made an undeniable contribution to the peaceful revolution against Apartheid in South Africa. In Mozambique, Mgr. Jaime Gonçalves, the Archbishop of Beira, played an important role in convincing the government to enter into negotiations that led to the peace-agreement on 4 October 1992. The Church (all people of goodwill), too, played a crucial role in Nigeria‟s Biafran war and the many civil wars in the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Soudan among others. The contributions of the Church saved millions of people from social and political discrimination; she helped to build united and inclusive nations. Religion has shown its engagement in and commitment to peace building and consolidating security in Africa; it contributes to African holistic development.

Religion has also been labelled as a threat to peace and security in many parts of the continent. Recent examples are the bloody fights between Christians and Muslims in the Central African Republic. The country became a battle field which impacted the lives of millions of people. These bloody attacks took the lives of many Christians and Muslims. Thousands of people lost their lives during the religious war; villages and cities are reported to have been burnt. In other parts of Africa, too, many people are slaughtered, tortured, displaced, raped and killed for their beliefs or religious adherence. The plagues of religious intolerance, unrest, violence and atrocities have created rivers of blood which continue to flow. This reflects religious violence and bloody conflicts that are devastating a large part of the continent. Is religion responsible for this religious intolerance and violence?

In fact, parts of Africa have suffered from Islamic State (IS) in North-East Africa, and its allied groups such as Boko Haram in North-West Africa, Al-Shabaab in Somalia and Kenya; all those countries underwent bloody confrontations between Christians and Muslims. Killings in God‟s or Allah‟s name

undermine religion‟s etymology as something that binds in reverence. In these wars, are Christians always blameless? Are jihadist movements in Africa motivated only by religion or are their motivations secular issues like ethnicity or regionalism or organized criminality to enable survival when national economies are collapsing? Some African leaders use religion to get to power; and religion has been used as an instrument to corrupt and manipulate Africans. Religion is also guilty of remaining quiet when people were facing social, political and structural injustices such as racial discrimination, mass killing, corruptions and embezzlements. Did religion fail to carry out its prophetic mission in civil, tribal and genocidal wars that raged on in the continent? How can religion and religious organisations play a positive role in African political life? Has Christianity subsequently intervened in spreading justice and stability? In different parts of the continent, people are facing economic and political crisis; is it not the Church‟s right to denounce structural injustices and violence that go against the Church‟s teachings about peace and security? What is the role of Christianity in shaping public policies in African nations? Religion is sometimes used or misused to pursue one‟s interests. How can we identify when religion is used for personal greed? How can we develop a more profound understanding of religious differences? What are the ways forward? Does Catholic social teaching give us directions as to how Catholicism in particular should judge the duties of governments? How far does religion speak to Africa‟s future?

Traditional kings had spiritual leaders who could guide and interpret their leadership; could modern secular leaders emulate such an example? As surveys confirm, many African countries have a great number of Christians. Burundi is 90% Christian, Equatorial Guinea 89%, South Africa counts 80%, Kenya has around 75% Christian, Nigeria holds 60% and Zimbabwe with 63% among them. Christians constitute 45% of the African population; should the Church recover the power that it used to have in past years? What was/is the role or the contribution (political, economic, social, education, etc.) of religion in African politics? What is the great service that the Church can offer to Africa? Is it evangelisation or building schools, etc.? Is religion always dangerous? What are the challenges of religion in African politics? Should Africa become a secular continent? The Catholic Church, through her different pontiffs, has issued many political Encyclicals, which have constituted Catholic Social teaching; should the encyclicals be a starting point we follow up on? What is the place of Christianity in the political life of African nations? Traditional religions are deeply concerned with material and immaterial welfare; can this view contribute to the political life of African politics? Taking an example from Achebe‟s Arrow of God about how the harvest was shared, we realise that the divine is encountered in material life, through rituals; e.g. worship at rain shrines was directed to the God who allowed rains to come on time. Traditional kings had spiritual leaders to help them in their leadership; what about secular leaders? Are secular leaders obliged to distribute public goods? Can Church leaders help to reconcile African politics and religion?

Today, various churches preach the „Gospel of prosperity‟, which basically focuses on earthly welfare (wealth, richness, goods, money, wives, cars, etc.). How can the Church recover her original face which preached humility? Should the Church take over the power? For over 20 years, the Kenyan Bishops were extremely influential; everybody in the country listened to their declarations. More recently, they were perceived as part of an ethnic conspiracy; is ethnicity a tendency in the African Church? Has the Church encouraged fragmentation?

These intriguing questions have led us to the theme for the Volume 19 No 1, May 2017 issue of Chiedza Use and Abuse of Religion in Africa. How can Religion evaluate, rebuild and restore its role in

African political life? How can it reconstruct bridges with African politics through social, economic and political life of African nations?

These and more are some of the pertinent questions that Chiedza suggests for our reflection. We welcome articles of 4,000 words or less on these and related themes. Articles must conform to the Chiedza style sheet. Articles, book reviews, poems, and creative short stories, not necessarily reflecting these topics, are also welcome, but thematic articles will be given priority. All articles are to be sent by email to the Editor-in-Chief at chiedza@arrupe.ac.zw on or before February 31, 2017. Please, refer to the Chiedza style sheet for other details. Thank You.

Pascal BIHORUBUSA, SJ

Editor-in-Chief

For the Chiedza Editorial Board.

Le Journal d’Arrupe College : Appel à Ecrire et à Envoyer des Articles.

USAGE ET ABUS DE LA RELIGION EN AFRIQUE

La religion est perçue comme une épée à double tranchant, pouvant à la fois donner et reprendre la vie. La religion s’est révélée à la fois comme un atout qui relie et construit des nations et des peuples; mais elle s’est aussi avérée être une menace pour la sécurité et la paix dans la mesure où elle peut entraîner des conflits. Les concepts de ‘religion’ et de ‘Dieu’ ont suscité des controverses, non seulement entre les Africains, mais aussi dans le monde entier. Pendant des millénaires, la religion a eu des effets positifs et négatifs sur le continent africain. En effet, d’une part, la religion a structuré, restructuré et nourri la vie politique africaine. D’autre part, la religion a créé et alimenté des conflits et des guerres dans différentes parties du continent jusqu’ à présent.

La religion, grâce à ses institutions et enseignements religieux, a mis en évidence son rôle indéniable de promotion de la paix dans différents territoires du continent. L’on peut, par exemple, évoquer son vibrant message de consolidation de la paix dans des régions tumultueuses d’Afrique tel que le Burundi. Afin de contrecarrer toute potentielle et future violence, les Evêques Catholiques de ce pays ont servi de médiateurs pour la formation d’un gouvernement plus collégial. Il est aussi à noter que la religion et les organisations religieuses ont été d’un irréfutable apport dans la révolution pacifique contre l’apartheid en Afrique du Sud. Au Mozambique, Mgr Jaime Gonçalves, l’Archevêque de Beira, a joué un rôle décisif en convainquant le gouvernement d’entamer des négociations qui ont plus tard abouti à l’accord de paix signé le 04 octobre 1992. Bien souvent, l’Eglise (toutes personnes de bonne volonté) a contribué efficacement à la résolution des crises comme le Biafra au Nigeria, et des nombreuses guerres civiles en République Démocratique du Congo et au Soudan, entre autres. Les contributions de l’Eglise ont sauvé des millions de personnes des discriminations sociales et politiques. L’Eglise a aidé à bâtir des nations unies et inclusives. En agissant ainsi, la religion a confirmé sa volonté et son engagement de construire et de consolider la paix et la sécurité en Afrique. En effet, elle contribue au développement holistique de l’Afrique.

Malgré ce rapport élogieux, la religion a été également qualifiée de menace pour la paix et la sécurité dans plusieurs pays africains. Les récents affrontements meurtriers entre Chrétiens et Musulmans en République Centrafricaine corroborent ce fait. Le pays est devenu un véritable champ de bataille qui a affecté la vie des millions de personnes. Les attaques sanglantes de ce conflit interreligieux ont ôté la vie à des Chrétiens et des Musulmans. Des milliers de personnes ont perdu la vie durant cette guerre religieuse ; des villages et cités auraient été dévastés et brûlés. Dans d’autres coins de l’Afrique également, un grand nombre de personnes sont

massacrées, torturées, déplacées de force, abusées et tuées pour leurs croyances ou appartenance religieuses. Les fléaux tels que l’intolérance religieuse, les agitations populaires, la violence et les atrocités qui en découlent ont causé des fleuves de sang lesquels continuent à couler. Cela reflète des violences religieuses et des conflits sanguinaires qui dévastent une grande partie du continent. De ce qui précède, peut-on conclure que la religion est vectrice de violence et d’intolérance religieuse ?

En réalité, certaines parties de l’Afrique ont souffert des attaques meurtrières perpétrées par des Etats islamiques du côté de l’Afrique du Nord-Est, et ses groupes alliés, tels que Boko-Haram en Afrique du Nord-Ouest, ou Al-Shabaab en Somalie et au Kenya. Tous ces pays ont connu des sanglantes confrontations entre Musulmans et Chrétiens. Les tueries et massacres orchestrées au nom de Dieu ou d’Allah sapent l’étymologie du concept ‘religion’ en tant qu’instrument de cohésion. Certaines questions se posent : les Chrétiens, sont-ils toujours irréprochables dans ces conflits? Les mouvements djihadistes en Afrique sont-ils motivés uniquement par la religion ou sont-ils occasionnés par les questions contemporaines liées à l’ethnicité ou le régionalisme, ou les crimes organisés pour permettre la survie en cas d’effondrement de l’économie nationale ? Certains dirigeants africains utilisent la religion pour accéder au pouvoir ; et la religion a servi comme instrument pour corrompre et pervertir les consciences africaines. La religion est aussi coupable de rester silencieuse face aux injustices sociales, politiques et structurelles telles que la discrimination raciale, les massacres à grande échelle, les corruptions et les malversations des biens publiques. De ce constat, d’autres questions émanent : la religion a-t-elle échoué à accomplir sa mission prophétique dans les guerres civiles, tribales et génocidaires qui ont ravagé le continent ? Comment la religion et les institutions religieuses peuvent-elles jouer un rôle indispensable dans la sphère politique africaine ? Le Christianisme aurait-il par la suite intervenu dans la propagation de la justice et la stabilité ? Dans différentes zones du continent, les gens sont confrontés à la crise économique et politique ; dans ce cas, ne revient-il pas à l’Eglise de dénoncer les injustices et violences structurelles qui contredisent ses enseignements sur la paix et la sécurité ? Quel est le rôle du Christianisme dans l’élaboration des bonnes politiques des nations africaines ? Très fréquemment, la religion est un prétexte pour justifier des fins personnelles. Comment peut-on reconnaître quand la religion est utilisée pour poursuivre des intérêts particuliers et personnels ? Comment peut-on développer une compréhension plus approfondie et enrichissante des différences religieuses ? Quelles sont les voies à adopter ? La doctrine sociale de l’Eglise Catholique nous donne-t-elle des directives qui aident les Catholiques en particulier à évaluer les devoirs des gouvernements? Jusqu’ à quel point la religion parle-t-elle de l’avenir du continent africain ?

Les autorités traditionnelles avaient des conseillers spirituels qui pouvaient les guider dans leur gestion du pouvoir ; les dirigeants contemporains pourraient-ils se servir d’un tel exemple ? Les sondages confirment que plusieurs pays africains ont une population majoritairement Chrétienne. Le Burundi est à 90% Chrétien ; Guinée Équatorial constitue 89%, l’Afrique du Sud compte 80%, le Kenya est environ 75% Chrétien, le Nigeria détient 60% et le Zimbabwe avec 63% entre-autres. A l’échelle continentale, les Chrétiens représentent 45% de la population ; l’Eglise devrait-elle reprendre le pouvoir qu’elle détenait jadis ? Quel fut et quel serait le rôle ou la

contribution (politique, économique, sociale, éducationnel, etc.) de la religion dans la politique africaine actuelle? Quel est le grand service que l’Eglise pourrait offrir à l’Afrique ? Est-ce en termes d’évangélisation ou de construction des écoles, etc. ? La religion est-elle toujours dangereuse ? Quels sont les défis de la religion dans la politique africaine ? L’Afrique devrait-elle devenir un continent séculier ? L’Eglise Catholique par l’intermédiaire de différents souverains pontifes a publié de nombreuses Encycliques concernant la politique. Celles-ci par la suite ont constitué la doctrine sociale. Ces encycliques devraient-elles marquer le point de départ à partir duquel les gens s’élanceront ? Quelle place le Christianisme occupe-t-il dans la vie politique des nations africaines ? Les religions traditionnelles sont profondément concernées par le bien-être matériel et immatériel ; cette idée peut-elle être d’une quelconque aide dans la vie politique africaine ? Prenant l’exemple de Arrow of God d’Achinua Achebe qui relate comment la récolte était partagée, nous nous rendons compte que le divin se rencontre dans la vie matérielle à travers divers rites ; par exemple, le culte au sanctuaire de la pluie était en l’honneur d’un dieu qui permettait à la pluie de tomber en temps opportun. Les leaders traditionnels avaient des guides spirituels qui les aidaient dans l’exercice du pouvoir ; qu’en est-il aux dirigeants séculiers ? Sont-ils obligés de distribuer des biens publics ? Les dirigeants de l’Eglise peuvent-ils aider à réconcilier la religion et la politique africaine ?

De nos jours, certaines églises prêchent l’Evangile de Prospérité qui met l’accent sur le confort matériel (la richesse, fortune, biens, argent, épouses, voitures, etc.) ; comment l’Eglise peut-elle retrouver son visage originel qui prêchait l’humilité ? L’Eglise devrait-elle s’emparer du pouvoir pour parvenir à cette fin ? Durant presque deux décennies, les Evêques Kenyans étaient extrêmement influents ; tout le monde, dans le pays, prêtait attention à leurs déclarations. Et plus récemment, ils étaient soupçonnés de conspirations ethniques. L’ethnicité est-elle vraiment une tendance dans l’Eglise africaine ? L’Eglise a-t-elle encouragé la fragmentation ?

Ces questions intrigantes nous ont conduits à formuler le thème pour le Volume 19 No 1, Mai 2017, du Journal Chiedza l‘Usage et l’Abus de la Religion en Afrique’. Comment la religion peut-elle évaluer, reconstruire et restaurer son rôle dans la vie politique africaine ? Comment peut-elle rétablir des ponts avec la politique africaine à travers la vie sociale, économique et politique des nations africaines ?

Ces questions représentent quelques problématiques pertinentes que Chiedza propose pour votre réflexion. Nous recevons des articles de tout au plus 4000 mots sur les questions évoquées ci-dessus ou liées à leurs thématiques. Nous accueillons aussi des articles et des revues de livres qui n’ont pas nécessairement trait à ces thèmes. Tous les articles doivent être envoyés par courrier électronique à l’Editeur-en-Chef à l’adresse chiedza@arrupe.ac.zw au plus tard le 31 février 2017. Pour plus d’informations, référez-vous au formulaire du Journal Chiedza. Merci.

Pascal BIHORUBUSA SJ.

Éditeur-en-Chef.

Pour le Comité de Rédaction de Chiedza.

Journal of Arrupe College, Call for Articles

REVIEWING THE CONCEPTS OF LEADERSHIP IN AFRICA

Africa is probably the richest of all the continents in terms of natural resources. However, the appalling socio-economic and political situation of several parts of the continent is in sharp contrast to Africa‟s potential. Several parts of Africa continue to wallow in poverty and to be fractured by conflict making it difficult for her people to benefit from the resources with which their motherland is richly endowed. Many factors are responsible for this but one reason is a failure of leadership in many African countries. Is part of the fault our own inadequate concept of leadership? Do we often lose sight of the fact that our leaders draw their power from the people whom they lead and that no leader is more powerful than the people?

The need to reflect on continental and national leadership is peculiarly relevant this year because it is sixty years since the first important steps were taken to begin the end of Europe‟s African empires and the beginning of Africa‟s nation states. On July 26th 1956, Colonel Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal in Egypt, owned and run by the British and the French since 1866 (Meredith 40). In the same July of 1956, Kwame Nkrumah swept to power with a huge majority that convinced the British of the need to set the date for Ghana‟s independence in March of 1957 (25). In the East of the continent, the Mau Mau freedom fighters were pitted against British forces fighting to defend the settlers and their allies. Although the Mau Mau‟s leader Dedan Kimathi was arrested the same year, and Mau Mau had lost the force of its original initiatives, glimmers of hope were dimly appearing as Britain realized that it would be unable to sustain anti-colonial wars throughout its African empire and Kenya began the movement to independence which occurred seven years later in 1963 (79-82). Africa was showing clear signs of a prosperous future of self-rule that would ensure dignity for her people and sustained development in the ensuing context of independence.

Further away from Africa, in the Soviet Union in February of 1956, Nikita S. Khrushchev delivered a secret speech in Moscow – On the Cult of Personality and its consequences – sharply tearing into Stalin‟s iron fist rule which massacred thousands of the population while propagating an almost religious reverence for him in his life time and now to his memory. Khrushchev advocated a rule of the “people as creator of history and as the creator of all material and spiritual good of humanity” (1). He is credited with the de-Stalinization of the Soviet Union. All these developments ought to have affected Africa‟s leadership story, for Africa was by now no longer isolated regarded as dark by ignorant outsiders but a continent in contact with the world

To help us understand the success and failure of African leadership, we need to think of the expectations we have of African leadership now, sixty years after all these developments in Africa and the world. How is good leadership conceived of in Africa today? If the unitary view of reality ascribed to Africa is anything to go by, then the relationship between these aspects would even be more intertwined, and feed directly into the patterns of leadership that can be perceived and reproduced throughout Africa. Africa as a continent has been talked of as communitarian- how long have we heard of „I am because you are‟?- How often do we hear celebrated Africa‟s contempt for individualism in our discourses on community? If these insights into African philosophical reflection had been lived out fully, would Africa have had a different story to tell today than the story she has been forced to tell about herself over the last sixty years?

The tales that come out of Africa today fall significantly short of these communitarian conceptions: the unending ethnic and religious wars that grip parts of Africa; the children of Africa who do not know where the next meal will come from because the land can no longer produce enough to meet their needs; the communities that experience violence every time they have to elect their political leaders; the young people who cannot get an education to

liberate them from their situation; the earth that cries out because its fertility is abused or its forests are destroyed, are all conspicuous contradictions to the proud claim that „I am because we are.‟

In many African states, political power is not something that is earned or lost by measuring a leader‟s achievements or failures. Instead, leaders do all they can to retain a firm hold on power for as long as they can. Political leaders have used power to protect themselves from economic crimes and other injustices against the weak. Economic systems have been propagated that benefit the rich without any concern about human dignity and the state of the poor. Positions of power have been used to initiate and conceal massive looting of public resources at the expense of the voiceless poor. Communities have been blindly mobilised to defend errant leaders even to the extent of going to war on their behalf. All these raise practical ethical issues that require urgent reflections that will result in realistic solutions.

We believe that an argument can be made that inadequate leadership in Africa has to a great extent contributed to these current conditions. We have therefore chosen as the theme for the Volume 18, No. 2, May 2016 edition of Chiedza Journal of Arrupe College, Reviewing the Concepts of Leadership in Africa. In this edition, we intend to reflect on why leadership in Africa has, to a large extent, not measured up to expectations, even as we try to envision what form leadership in Africa could and should have taken. The theme suggested here largely picks up from Volume 18 No.1, December 2015 which had as its theme „Overcoming the Dependency Syndrome in Africa,‟ in which leadership stands out as one of the main areas on which emphasis ought to be placed in redeeming present-day Africa. This issue therefore calls for deeper reflection on social, political, and economic philosophies that animate Africa„s concepts of leadership; the religious and cultural conceptions of an African leader; and even the anthropological conceptions that define the African person and what these have to say about the image of who leaders are on the African continent.

Who is a good leader for the African person; a redeemer, a tyrant, a demigod? What is the place of a leader in Africa; a servant or a served? Does the African political infrastructure allow for equality in positions of leadership? What are some of the successful political ideologies that can transform the lives of African peoples? Are African legal systems sufficient to assure that African states have good leaders for the future? What role does religion in Africa have in ensuring a leadership that assures of the protection of human dignity? Do the education systems in Africa shape leaders that are needed for the future of Africa? Do the African media adequately remind us of the values that Africa ought to look for in leaders? Does Africa need leaders who cannot easily be removed from power and are not therefore accountable? In Western political thought democracy assumes that the final sovereign is the majority of the people. Is this a new idea in Africa or is an idea that has always been present in African thinking?

These and more are some of the pertinent questions that Chiedza suggests for our reflection. We welcome articles of 4,000 words or less on these and related themes. Articles must be aligned to the Chiedza style sheet. Articles, book reviews, poems, and creative short stories not necessarily reflecting these topics are also welcome but thematic articles will be given priority. All articles are to be sent by email to the Editor-in-Chief at chiedza@arrupe.ac.zw on or before March 31 2015. Please refer to the Chiedza style sheet for other details. Thank You.

Dindi Ong’aria, SJ

Editor-in-Chief

For the Chiedza Editorial Board

References

Khrushchev, Nikita S. “Lunds universitet website.” n.d. Modern History Sourcebook. <http://www.ht.lu.se/media/utbildning/dokument/kurser/EUHA14/20121/Nikita_S._Khrushchev__The_Secret_Speech_On_the_Cult_of_Personality_1956.pdf>. Accessed: 16 01 2015

Meredith, Martin. The State of Africa: A History of the Continent since Independence. London: Simon & Schuster, 2011.

Notes for Contributors

Manuscripts should be sent to the Editor-in-Chief of Chiedza at chiedza@arrupe.ac.zw. The text should be neatly typed, double-spaced and using software that is compatible with MS Word. The List of Sources should be single spaced. The length of articles should be around 4000 words or less. However, longer articles will also be considered for publication, if their content justifies their length. An abstract of 200 words in length, covering the main factual points of the article, its objectives, the methods that have been employed, and the results and conclusions that have been arrived at should accompany the article. A list of at least six keywords for abstracting and indexing services should be placed at the end of the abstract.

References

Chiedza uses the Modern Language Association (MLA) format for referencing source materials. Under this format reference to sources is in the form of citations in parentheses within the text, and an accompanying “List of Sources” at the end of the article.

1. Citations in the Text

1:1 Identify paraphrases of any length or short prose quotations by citing the author‟s last name and page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence or paragraph in which the paraphrase or quotation appears. For example: A feminist theorist has noted “that gender discourse is often dismissed by men, and sometimes by women, as being merely a succession of empty speeches and a means whereby women may see whether they can measure up to men” (Nkealah 134).

1:2 If the author‟s name is mentioned in the sentence that contains a quote, provide only the page numbers in parentheses at the end of the sentence and within the period. For example: Nkealah has noted “that gender discourse is often dismissed by men, and sometimes by women, as being merely a succession of empty speeches and a means whereby women may see whether they can measure up to men” (134).

1:3 If more than one work by the same author appears in the List of Sources, include a shortened version of each title after the name preceded by a comma. For example: (Nkealah, “Conceptualizing” 134) or (Nkealah, “In the Name” 48)

1:4 If a work has more than one author, list both or all of them in your citation or use the first author‟s last name and add et al. For example (Cothell, Dolan, Highley, and Marotti 9) or (Cothell et al. 9)

1:5 If the work has no author listed, cite by the title or by the first main word or two of a long title.

1:6 Endnotes are not used. Any additional material that comments on the text may be included in footnotes. The number referring to a footnote should appear as „superscript‟ after the final full-stop of the sentence.

2. Quotations within the text

2:1 Shorter quotations should be in inverted commas.

2:2 Prose quotations more than four lines in length should be block indented 10 spaces from the left margin. The indented quotation should not be in inverted commas.

3. Listing a Work in the List of Sources

3:1 Items in the List of Sources should be listed alphabetically by the author‟s name and the author‟s surname should appear first followed by a comma.

3:2 A book by one author. Lessing, Doris. Time Bites: Views and Reviews. London and New York: Fourth Estate, 2004.

3:3 A book by two or more authors. Smart, J.J.C and Bernard Williams. Utilitarianism: For and Against. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973.

3:4 An article in a journal. Nkealah, Naomi N. “Conceptualizing Feminism(s) in Africa: The Challenges Facing African Women Writers and Critics.” English Academy Review 23: 1 (2006):133-41.

3:5 A chapter in an edited volume. Stevenson, Jane. “Women Catholics and Latin Culture.” Catholic Culture in Early Modern England. Ed. Ronald Corthel, Frances E. Dolan, Christopher Highley and Arthur F. Marotti. Notre Dame, IN, University of Notre Dame Press, 2007. 52-72.

3:6 A book by a corporate author or group. Second Vatican Council. Vatican Council II: The Conciliar and Post Conciliar Documents. New rev. ed. Gen. Ed. Austin Flannery. Newport, NY: Costello, 1992.

Online material. Information on an article that has been read online (e.g. full address and date of latest update) can be obtained by right clicking on the page and choosing “View Page Info.”

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